Rachel Roddys Roman rice and spinach cake recipe | Kitchen Sink Tales

This weeks recipe can be made from scratch or, true-life to Roman resourcefulness with what remains, could introduce leftovers to occupation. Either method, it celebrates the seasons reward of lively spinach and is perfect with a Sicilian orange and fennel salad

Big pellets of spinach always catch my see on the rare reasons I go in one of the smarter of Testaccios food shops. This is ridiculous considering the cabinets of cheese and entire walls of cured flesh that could be taking my courtesy. However, the shining dark-green, cricket-ball sized worlds of blanched spinach that sit on a white tray at the figurehead of the ready-prepared meat section are the things I find myself looking at over and over again. My train of thought is always the same. They are 14 euros each! Who buys these dances? Doing my own at home, I have found there must be a kilo of( hardy) spinach in each one. At the moment spinach is 2. 50 a kilo at world markets, so there is serious profit in these balls.

Good spinach should be lively, it is appropriate to crunch and squeal as you stuff it into the baggage writes Jane Grigson. I guess she would have approved of my farming fruit and veg serviceman Filippo on Testaccio market. His spinach needs to be wrestled into the purse, and then jumps against my leg all the course residence. She would also, I recollect, have approved of the go bagful I bought on the Uxbridge Road yesterday, which is now sitting in a colander in my sisters kitchen in London. I enjoy this parity of parts in my two countries. I like hardy wintertime spinach selections, with their crumpled buds, ribbed stems with pink tips, seeming robust, hitherto at the same duration sugared and tender.

Introduced to Italy by the Arabs in the 11 th century, the spinach expand near Rome is excellent. Generally, it is merely sufficed, shrivelled, well-drained and garmented with olive oil and a spritz of lemon. Another good Roman way is strascinata dragged in olive oil and garlic, sometimes with raisins and yearn seeds. All that said, butter is what I implore with spinach a lot, thinking of a Jane Grigson recipe in which spinach is shrivelled, then reheated several times, contributing more butter each time, until it is the richest stuff, a spoonful of which knocks the socks off creamed spinach. Butter is also key on dough under spinach and hollandaise, or melted on those pesky-to-poach, but excellent spinach and ricotta dumplings that Tuscans announce gnudi .

Todays recipe though, is for none of the above , nor is it the spinach curry I am looking forward to eating while I am in London. It is a spinach and rice patty, which firstly came about for me because of spinach and rice leftovers. Or as an Italian would say the avanzi di spinaci e riso avanzi sense what remains, but also something advantageous, which is the way Italians identify leftovers. Of route Italy isnt alone or special in having resourceful recipes for using leftovers: its a feature in traditional home cooking in all countries. But Italy is where I know, and where recipes for leftovers genuinely do still regulation, helping cooking feel like a continuum, one food and meal rolling into the next rather than a series of isolated occasions.

Whether stimulated with advantageous leftovers, or cooked from scratch, this is surprisingly savory and good sentiment; savoury and pleasingly plump. It is all very straightforward rice and spinach mixed with its allies: butter, nutmeg, parmesan and eggs, pressed into a tin then baked. The tin helps create a crusted underside. It is good helped hot, heated or at room temperature. Spinach and orange are good friends, so my Sicilian orange and fennel salad, which I roll out wherever possible, is my select of accompaniment here. Otherwise there is the very sociable peperonata. Your suggestions are welcome. If you do prepare the spinach for this, perhaps cook more than you need and determine your spinach advantage into a ball.

Spinach and rice cake torta di spinaci e riso

I am not going to assume you all have leftover spinach and rice, so here is the recipe from scratch, which should also help you get a handle on lengths so “when youre doing” have leftovers you can do it by eye.

Rachel

Rachel Roddys spinach and rice patties Photograph: Rachel Roddy for the Guardian

Suffices 46
500g fresh spinach
250g Italian short cereal risotto rice( such as arborio or carnaroli)
Salt and black pepper
A small-time onion
20g butter, plus more for the dish
3 eggs, beaten
50g parmesan
Nutmeg
A handful of fine breadcrumbs

1 Pick over the spinach, abandoning discoloured needles and tough stubbles, then laundry in a couple of changes of cold water. Substance the soaked spinach into a large pan with no extra ocean and cook, comprised over a low-pitched heat until it droops. Tip it into a colander and then leave to deplete thoroughly.

2 Boil the rice in salted ocean for 10 instants, then drain.

3 Peel and finely dice the onion. In a large frying or saute pan, fry the onion in the butter with a small pinch of salt until soft and golden. Use scissors to approximately chop the spinach and then add to the fry pan along with the rice.

4 Pull the pan from the flame, allow to cool a little before adding the clobber eggs, parmesan, nutmeg, black pepper and a pinch of salt if necessary.

5 Butter and dust a patty tin or mould with fine breadcrumbs. Tip-off the potpourrus into the mould and then press flat with the back of a spoon. Bake at 200 C/ 400 F/ gas mark 6 for 25 minutes or until the patty is determine house, a little crispy and golden. Give to sit for five minutes before turning out, or providing straight-out from the tin in wedges. Also very good at room temperature.

Read more: http :// www.theguardian.com/ lifeandstyle/ 2016/ jan/ 26/ italian-spinach-rice-cake-recipe-torta-di-spinaci-e-riso-rachel-roddy

Is it okay for vegetarians to eat jellyfish? Dean Burnett

Dean Burnett: Would you be willing to eat a jellyfish? Even if youre vegetarian, you might want to consider it.

Would you gobble a jellyfish? The most likely react would be no; they gaze outraging. And theyre possibly poisonous. Shall I wash it down with a neat glass of chilled urine? But, unavoidably, some people do eat them. They might even enjoy them, the maniacs.

But Cnidaria cookery procedures aside, consider this; would it be OK for a vegetarian to snack jellyfish? If not, why not?

A lot of parties are adopting a vegan diet this January, and more ability to them. Their motivatings may run( for donation, for the health benefits etc .) but its still a big wrench, to remove a enormous swathe of selection from your daily diet.

To clarify, Im not vegan myself, or vegetarian. I do like flesh, and I simply scarcity the firmnes to cut myself off from it solely. As a develop, I have a lot of respect for those who do manage it. But as anyone whos heard the phrase Im a vegetarian, except in cases of fish will have realised, there are different levels of has pledged to vegetarianism, and beings differ wildly on what the fuck is consider acceptable or not.

Part of this is likely to arising as a result of the differ motivations for being vegetarian/ vegan in the first place. Some do it for religious intellects, so what you snack is determined by your holy text or scripture etc. Restrictive perhaps, but at least you know where you stand. Other people simply dont like meat, or are intolerant to it or other animal produces , so only avoid them wholly. In this case, its your immune plan that defines your diet.

There are also resonated environmental grounds. While there are concerns over the environmental impacts of popular vegetarian-friendly essences like palm petroleum, the environmental cost of flesh product is undeniable, and overwhelming.

HoneyMandatory Credit: Photo by Richard Bowler/ REX Shutterstock( 4681850 a) Honey bees leaving and penetrating a beehive Honey bees at beehive near Corwen, North Wales – 18 Apr 2015 Wildlife photographer Richard Bowler captured these fascinating epitomes of sugar bees in a hive near Corwen, North Wales on Saturday( 18 April ). He says: I photographed these when a friend examined his hive. I aimed up with five stingings to the head for my hardship, LOL! animalgallery” src= “https :// i.guim.co.uk/ img/ media/ 4173391 c767f5f36e8a8fa8e72299dd522398d0f/ 108 _0_ 4355 _2 613/ original/ 4355. jpg? w= 300& q= 85& auto= format& sharp= 10& s= e33431d87a7441c59ca0949390cace58” />

Vegetarianism gets a bit mystifying formerly you get insects involved. Image: Richard Bowler/ REX Shutterstock

But numerous parties borrow vegetarianism/ veganism for moral and ethical grounds, which is fair enough. Objecting to swine being killed or suffering for our nutrient is a perfectly logical stance. But when you get down to the actual scientific minutiae of what these things signify, then it starts to get perplexing.

This brings us back to the jellyfish question; would it be safe for a vegetarian to eat one? If youre vegetarian for environmental rationales, it may even be better to gobble jellyfish, thrown how abundant they are without any need for harmful human farming. But what about ethical concerns? While technically categorized as swine, they are devoid of any brain or nervous system, and most cant even restrict where they move. Everything we know about neuroscience suggests such a mortal would be totally incapable of comprehending anything as complex as torment or inconvenience, and it certainly wouldnt be able to experience any emotional reaction to such its own experience. So by dining one , no torment can be said to have occurred. It may still be a living thing, but then so is a carrot. Why is one OK to devour and not the other?

The ability to perceive and substantiate anxiety and sting does seem to be a big factor in whether a species is regarded a valid one of the purposes of ones diet. A most interesting discussion can be found on Richard Herrings excellent Leicester Square Theatre Podcast with comedian and vegan Michael Legge, about whether honey is vegan. Legge insists that it isnt because its a essence make use of animals, which is a perfectly logical( and consistent) proof. However, you can also realize why some might think its OK. Removing honey from a hive generally does no harm to the bees, apart from maybe annoying them. Bees are another disorient one. They establish honey anyway, its not something humen action them to do, and they make way too much so us taking some isnt damaging.

Insects and vegetarianism have complex affairs. Numerous was considered that vegetarians should eat insects, for environmental and ethical rationales. Insects are fantastically easy to produce and contain copious nutrients, and insects also arent cognitively complex sufficient to process things like suffering and suffering. Nonetheless, thats individual insects. Species like the aforementioned bees model huge settlements, and numerous consider these superorganisms the true an expression of insect ability. So is it ethically incorrect to harm these? I cant tell you that.

Insects, jellyfish and other species likely seem fair game to many due to a simple outage of rapport. Big, furry or fluffy characters we can relate to, ugly or different ones make it harder, so concern for their wellbeing isnt so common, regrettably.

This sort of dilemma, viewing whats ethically acceptable to eat, is likely to get most complex as food production technology advances to meet demands. Already, humans are too widespread for modern methods to be 100% swine friendly( modern reaping procedures unavoidably kill or shift numerous beings while gathering vegetable cultivates) and our species will need increasing loudness of nutrient as hour legislates. Technology will hopefully provide solutions to this, but likewise muddy the waters further.

Signature

Could technology end up producing a vegan-friendly burger? Depends on how friendly the vegans are. Photograph: McDonalds/ PA

Stem cell meat is one big hope for the future, allowing meat to be originated and are available in the lab, rather than the abattoir. But are they vegetarian safe? If private individuals burger is thriven from a gob of stem cells, then no animal has been harmed in its yield. But if those stem cells were originally taken from a slaughtered swine, is it still ethically wrong? Yes, to start with, but what if its the same stem cadre pipeline being used 20 several years later, foreclosing other swine from being used? Is it still bad then?

Maybe well finish up working out how to recycle food with great economy. Devoted that we are able 3D-print human material, its not too far-fetched to predict a season when we can easily publication meat. Dream a technological system where you heave consumed or unwanted meat in one outcome, its broken down into its constituent molecules( flabs, proteins, sugars ), these are fed into a printer link specific ink from dedicated cartridges, and theyre reassembled as fresh, recognisable groceries. That would be very useful , without doubt.

But what if you spouted a quantity of half-eaten burgers in one discontinue and used their mass to make veggies? Would they be safe for vegans to devour? It might not look like it, but the original meat topic is completely broken down and reassembled, exactly as it would be if you place the burgers in a compost pile and used them to develop tomatoes. That would be acceptable, why not this? Its exactly a faster, more technical version of the natural process that prolong us. Possibly a more environment-friendly one? You just know beings will object though, because thats what we do.

There arent any obvious a resolution to any of this, its only interesting to note that, when you apply detailed technical analysis, the divide between vegetarianism and non-vegetarianism is much more blurry than youd expect. Its the same with race.

However, if in ten years youre sitting down to a container of Jellyfish pieces, dont say I didnt warn you.

Dean Burnett regrets sitting down to write this so close to noon. Hes on Twitter, @garwboy

Read more: http :// www.theguardian.com/ science/ brain-flapping/ 2016/ jan/ 18/ vegetarians-to-eat-jellyfish-food-environment

Nigel Slaters oyster sauce chicken with citrus mint salad recipe

On a chilly darknes nothing heateds you up like blisteringly red-hot Chinese-style chicken, served with a cooling area of herby salad, says Nigel Slater

There was a bit of a commotion of aniseed, soy and ginger-scented prepare in the kitchen last week, as there often is when I have had one of my irregular trips to Chinatown. These are the journeys where I return home with armfuls of bottles and cups, mainly red.

I only requirement, nearly implored, the smell of oyster sauce to warm up a kitchen turned ice-cold by a dodgy thermostat. Leafy parks, bok choy and mustard dark-greens are regularly steamed and convulsed with dense, glossy oyster sauce at home, but flesh and fish rather less so.

I convulsed fatten, free-range chicken thighs with crushed garlic, sugar, chilli and oyster sauce and broiled them on a freezing night when exclusively something blisteringly, eye-wateringly hot would hit the spot. It wasnt something that they were able bask under the label of authenticity it was just what I needed at that moment. The chicken developed glossy, softly crisp and very hot. It sizzled as we feed, drawing our lips tingle. We set the volley out with a sour citrus salad.

There was a big pudding, more, the sort of broiled butterscotch sponge liaison, with ointment, butter and sugar, that only ever comes out in the very depths of winter. Emergency cooking for the cold and hungry.

Oyster sauce chicken with citrus plenty salad

Check the chicken regularly, embracing it with foil if it is browning too much.

Serves 3
chicken thighs 6

For the marinade:
garlic 3 big cloves
onion 1, medium sized
oyster sauce 100 ml
ignited soy sauce 4 tbsp
honey 3 tbsp
chilli sauce 3 tbsp

For the salad:
fish sauce 2 tsp
caster carbohydrate 1 tbsp
lime juice 2 tbsp
pile leaves 10
coriander leaves a large handful
chilli 1, medium-sized
pink grapefruit 1
cashews 2 handful, cooked and salted

To construct the marinade peel the garlic then subdues the cloves to a glue expending a pestle and mortar and a pinch of salt. Employ the paste into a large mingling container. Peel the onion, cut it in half and chopper it very finely. Blend with the garlic.

Put the oyster and soy sauces, the honey and the chilli sauce into the mixing container and conjure thoroughly. Push the chicken pieces into the marinade, turn them over and leave in a cool lieu for an hour or two.

Set the oven at 180 C/ gas mark 4. Place the chicken pieces into a nonstick bake tin, spoon over half the marinade and lieu in the preheated oven. Roast for 45 hours, basting once or twice with the remaining marinade, and regularly checking their progress. Extend the ribbing tin with foil if necessary.

To represent the salad, combine the fish sauce, caster carbohydrate and lime juice in a small bowl. Roughly chop or snap the spate leaves and add to the container, together with the coriander leaves. Finely chop the chilli and add to the dressing.

Slice the ends from the grapefruit, plaza it flat on the chopping board then slice away the peel and white-hot pith a sharp-witted kitchen spear. Remove the segments of chassis from the scalp. Apply the grapefruit into the set and leave for 10 instants before adding the cashew nuts and serving.

Cranberry pudding with butterscotch sauce

Fruits
Fruits of labour: cranberry pudding with butterscotch sauce. Photograph: Jonathan Lovekin for the Observer

Once out of the oven, leave the pudding for a few minutes to settle. And, despite the butterscotch sauce, Id be tempted to furnish cream, too.

You will also need a deep baking dish or pudding bowl setting approximately 18 cm x 15 cm.

Serves 4-6
dried apricots 180 g
cranberries 50 g, fresh or frozen
simmering ocean 200 ml
butter 100 g
illuminated muscovado sugar 100 g
egg 1
plain flour 150 g
cooking pulverization 1.5 tsp

For the sauce:
ignited muscovado sugar 100 g
doubled ointment 125 ml
butter 70 g
maple syrup 1 tbsp
cranberries 100 g, fresh or frozen

Cut the apricots into small fragments and throw them in a heatproof mixing bowl. Contribute the 50 g of cranberries and swarm the simmering ocean over. Set aside while you reach the pudding.

Butter the pudding container with a small knob of butter. Sieve together the flour and roasting pulverization. Employ the other members of the butter into the container of a food mixer fitted with a flat beater. Add the sugar and lash for 4-5 minutes till soft, pale and milky, rarely scraping down the sides of the bowl with a rubber spatula.

Make the sauce by putting the sugar, ointment, butter and maple syrup in a saucepan and introducing to the boil. Give it stew for 2 minutes, roughly chop the 100 g of cranberries( if utilizing frozen fruit, this is easier in a food processor) then add to the sauce.

Break the egg into a bowl, drum thinly, just enough to mix grey and yolk, then add, with the beater still turning, to the butter and sugar.

When the egg is fully incorporated, stir in the flour and broiling pulverization smorgasbord, turning gradually until there is no way visible detect of flour left. Fold in the apricots and cranberries, and the irrigate they are in. Move the mixture to the buttered container, smooth the surface thinly then bake for 30 hours until pale golden and softly firm. Remove from the oven, pour over half of the cranberry butterscotch sauce and return to the oven for a further 10 instants. Serve red-hot along with the remaining sauce.

Email Nigel at nigel.slater @observer. co.uk or follow him on Twitter @NigelSlater

Read more: https :// www.theguardian.com/ lifeandstyle/ 2017/ feb/ 26/ nigel-slater-oyster-sauce-chicken-with-citrus-mint-salad

How to cook the perfect pitta bread

This Middle Eastern staple is well worth the minimal effort to make at home

These barely leavened breads, known to us by their Israeli name, but common throughout the Arab world, are some of the most ancient in existence. Although flat in appearance, they are designed to puff up during baking and then sink, creating a hollow interior that makes a handy repository for fillings. Quick to make, and easy to eat, its little wonder theyre popular, in various forms, from southern Europe to north Africa, not only for stuffing, but also as utensils for dipping or scooping food, and bulking out soups and salads.

Sealed in long-life packaging, pitta can be picked up at most supermarkets for mere pennies so why bother to make your own? Because, unless youre lucky enough to be able to find them freshly baked, shop-bought pitta is a very poor relation, just like pizza bases, or indeed hummus. The real thing is soft and chewy, rather than tough, with a fluffy interior perfect for soaking up sauces theyre well worth the pretty minimal effort.

Yvonne
Yvonne Rupertis pitta bread. Photograph: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

The flour

Most pitta recipes call for white flour, and generally of the high-protein, strong variety, although Yvonne Ruperti on the US-based Serious Eats website uses plain flour, both white and wholemeal, explaining that using 20% wholewheat flour [makes] the dough much more flavourful and nutty than one made with just all-purpose flour, while also not compromising its structure.

Pitta is a bread that depends on gluten development for its distinctive form; without it, the dough will not be strong enough to puff up in the oven, yielding a simple flatbread, rather than one with a pocket. (Pitta breads get their characteristic form from a combination of heat and moisture. When the thin round of dough goes into the oven, the heat sets the top and bottom while turning the liquid in the dough into steam, which is then trapped between these layers of cooked dough, causing the bread to expand. Although it will rapidly collapse when removed from the heat, the pocket inside remains intact.)

Pitta
Pitta bread by Belinda Harley. Photograph: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

Most of Rupertis breads do rise (and fall), but I find the dough requires more initial kneading, and that the results lack the chewiness of some of the others. Belatedly, I realise that the American all-purpose flour she refers to tends to be harder than our own, so the difference between strong and plain flour over there will be less marked. In any case, British readers are best advised to splash out on bread flour.

The flavour and slightly nubbly texture that the wholemeal flour gives the breads is popular with testers, although as Ruperti notes, this doesnt produce gluten as easily as its white counterpart, so its best used in moderation. Strong wholemeal is ideal, but in such small amounts, plain will also do if thats what you have to hand. If you prefer a smoother, paler pitta, replace the wholewheat with more white flour.

The fat

The
The Herbet brothers use rapeseed oil. Photograph: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

It is certainly possible to make pitta without any fat at all, although why you would want to is beyond me; not only does it add flavour, but it keeps the bread fresher for longer. Tom and Henry Herbert uses rapeseed oil in their book The Fabulous Baker Brothers, and Belinda Harleys Roast Lamb in the Olive Groves goes for butter instead, both of which work just fine texturally, but the former gives the bread a rich flavour that puts me more in mind of naan, while the latter is boringly neutral. Grassy and quintessentially Mediterranean, olive feels like the natural choice.

Sarit Packer and Itamar Srulovichs recipe in the Honey & Co cookbook, which several people recommend to me as the only one I should try, adds the fat towards the end of the kneading process. Although their pittas are delicious, its definitely harder to incorporate the oil at this point, and I would be interested to know the reason behind it; some research suggests that not adding it at the beginning encourages gluten formation in the dough. If anyone can confirm this, I would be grateful, but I dont find it makes a significant difference, so Im going to stick with the easier method.

Seasoning

You dont have to look very far to find recipes for flavoured pitta (garlic and thyme, for example, or black onion seed), but I dont think these little breads need any help in that department. That said, its common to add sugar to kickstart the action of the yeast, and although a pinch would be sufficient, using the same amount as salt gives the breads a more well-rounded flavour: add too much, as Ruperti does, and they lose the plainness that is their chief virtue; add too little, or none at all as the Herberts do, and theyre a bit underwhelming.

A
A great puffed pitta from Sarit Packer and Itamar Srulovich. Photograph: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

The method

Pitta dough must be sufficiently hydrated to generate steam when it meets the heat of the oven, and strong enough to trap this steam, and thus puff up, so the mixture must be both fairly wet and well-kneaded. Dont be tempted to flour the work surface unless the dough is so sticky as to be completely unmanageable; it will come together eventually and, in the meantime, a palette knife or dough scraper will make life easier. If you have a food mixer, then by all means use that; mines currently on the blink.

Packer and Srulovich recommend resting the dough overnight if you have the time, as it helps the flavour develop and makes the pitta fluffier, and theyre right; if homemade pittas are noticeably more delicious than shop-bought ones, slow-risen ones are even better.

Even if you cant wait that long, do let the individual breads rest before shaping; just 10 minutes makes the process much easier. The Herberts recommend rolling it out in one direction only, but this is another fiddly step I cant fathom the thinking behind as with the oil, if anyone knows why, please explain.

However you roll them out, make sure they are thin enough to puff up in the short time they take to cook, and evenly so, too, or they will blister in places, rather than blowing up like a balloon. Ruperti, who noticed a tendency for the pitta to end up with a much thinner top than bottom after it comes out of the oven, suggests flipping the breads over before putting them in the oven, so the pocket of air that rises during the final proofing stage is at the bottom when the dough enters the oven.

Pan-fried
Pan-fried pitta bread by Rebecca Seal. Photograph: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

The cooking

Like most breads, pittas are traditionally baked at temperatures that can be difficult to replicate at home. Packer and Srulovich advise cranking your oven up to maximum, on the fan setting if possible, and heating a baking tray or stone along with it, to give the breads the hottest start possible and encourage the creation of steam.

Although the oven is certainly the best cooking option for pitta, as the heat from both top and bottom helps to set the dough quickly, its not the only one; Rebecca Seals book The Islands of Greece gives an excellent recipe using a frying pan. Harley also uses this method, which she recommends topping with a thick tomato sauce and crisp brown cubes of pork or lamb, a spoonful of thick tzatziki [and] some raw onion and tomato (pitta porn alert). The interior pockets are less reliable, but its much quicker if youre in a hurry, or its just too hot to switch the oven on.

Ruperti suggests finishing off the breads in a hot pan to give them that delicious charred flavour that can be hard to achieve in a domestic oven Not only do the pittas look a lot better that way, but the charring adds a layer of smoky flavour. Shes right, but it isnt traditional (Packer and Srulovich warn that they are not supposed to colour much) and it will crisp up the outsides of the breads, making them less pliable and amenable to stuffing. For me, it depends on what Ill be eating them with. Plainer fillings, such as hummus or salad, cry out for a little char, while barbecued meats or vegetables dont need it. The jury is out on my current favourite filling, however: Marmite and banana. In my defence, Ive had an awful lot of pitta to put away this week.

Perfect
Perfect pitta bread by Felicity Cloake. Photograph: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

(makes 10)
400ml warm but not hot water
10g active dried yeast
2 tsp sugar
400g strong white flour
100g wholemeal flour (optional, or use 500g white)
2 tsp salt
2 tbsp olive oil, plus extra to grease

Put 100ml warm water in a jug and whisk in the yeast and half the sugar. Leave until the surface is covered in froth. Meanwhile, combine the flours, remaining sugar and salt in a large mixing bowl.

Mix the oil and yeasty water in the flour with your fingertips, then add just enough of the remaining water to give you a shaggy dough it should be soft, but not too sticky (note if youre using all white flour, it probably wont need as much as a wholemeal/white mix). Turn out on to a clean work surface and knead for about 10 minutes (or about 8 in a food mixer on a low speed) until smooth and elastic. Put into an oiled bowl, turn to coat in oil, then cover and refrigerate overnight, or leave somewhere warmish until doubled in size (about an hour to an hour and a half).

Heat the oven to maximum, preferably fan, with a baking stone or heavy baking tray in there. Meanwhile, divide the dough into approximately 80g balls, cover with a damp tea towel and allow to rest for 10 minutes, then roll out on a floured surface to rounds about 0.5mm thick, making sure they are evenly thick all over. Cover with a damp tea towel and leave for 20 minutes.

Operating as quickly as possible, put as many pitta as will comfortably fit on the hot stone or baking tray while its still in the oven, flipping them over as you pick them up, so the side resting on the work surface is now on top. Cook until they balloon, then carefully remove and keep warm in a tea towel while you cook the rest (how long this takes will depend on how hot your oven gets). Make sure to keep the oven door closed as much as possible to conserve heat. Eat the same day, or freeze.

Pitta, pide, khubz which version of this very versatile flatbread is your favourite, and how do you like to eat it? And has anyone had any success baking it with other flours?

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/wordofmouth/2016/jul/13/how-to-cook-the-perfect-pitta-bread

Is it okay for vegetarians to eat jellyfish? Dean Burnett

Dean Burnett: Would you be willing to eat a jellyfish? Even if youre vegetarian, you might want to consider it.

Would you feed a jellyfish? The most likely react “wouldve been” no; they look outraging. And theyre perhaps poisonous. Shall I bathe it down with a nice glass of chilled urine? But, unavoidably, some people do eat them. They might even enjoy them, the maniacs.

But Cnidaria cookery procedures aside, consider this; would it be OK for a vegetarian to devour jellyfish? If not, why not?

A lot of people are adopting a vegan food this January, and more ability to them. Their motivatings may vary( for benevolence, for the health benefits etc .) but its still a big wrench, to remove a enormous swathe of choice from your daily diet.

To clarify, Im not vegan myself, or vegetarian. I do like meat, and I plainly shortage the willpower to cut myself off from it alone. As a outcome, I have a lot of respect for those who do cope it. But as anyone whos heard the word Im a vegetarian, except in cases of fish will have realised, there are different levels of commitment to vegetarianism, and people differ wildly on what the hell is consider acceptable or not.

Part of this may stem from the differing motives for being vegetarian/ vegan in the first place. Some do it for religious grounds, so what the hell are you snack is determined by your pious verse or scripture etc. Restrictive perhaps, but at the least you know where you stand. Other parties simply dont like flesh, or are intolerant to it or other animal concoctions , so just avoid them altogether. In this case, its your immune plan that ascertains your diet.

There are also voiced environmental concludes. While there are concerns over the environmental impacts of favourite vegetarian-friendly elements like palm oil, the environmental cost of meat creation is undeniable, and staggering.

HoneyMandatory Credit: Photo by Richard Bowler/ REX Shutterstock( 4681850 a) Honey bees leaving and registering a beehive Honey bees at beehive near Corwen, North Wales – 18 Apr 2015 Wildlife photographer Richard Bowler captured these fascinating portraits of honey bees in a hive near Corwen, North Wales on Saturday( 18 April ). He says: I photographed these when a pal examined his hive. I intention up with five stings to the head for my bother, LOL! animalgallery” src= “https :// i.guim.co.uk/ img/ media/ 4173391 c767f5f36e8a8fa8e72299dd522398d0f/ 108 _0_ 4355 _2 613/ original/ 4355. jpg? w= 300& q= 85& auto= format& sharp-witted= 10& s= e33431d87a7441c59ca0949390cace58” />

Vegetarianism gets a bit mystifying formerly you get insects concerned. Photograph: Richard Bowler/ REX Shutterstock

But numerous people adopt vegetarianism/ veganism for moral and ethical concludes, which is fair enough. Objecting to swine being killed or tolerating for our food is a perfectly logical posture. But when you get down to the actual scientific minutiae of what these things necessitate, then it starts to get mystifying.

This wreaks us back to the jellyfish question; would it be safe for a vegetarian to eat one? If youre vegetarian for environmental reasons, it may even be better to ingest jellyfish, presented how abundant they are without any would be required for harmful human cultivation. But what about ethical headaches? While technically classified as swine, they are devoid of any brain or nervous system, and most cant even restrain where they move. Everything we are aware of neuroscience hints such a individual would be totally incapable of comprehending anything as complex as bear or discomfort, and it certainly wouldnt be able to experience any emotional reaction to such its own experience. So by feeing one , no torment can be said to have arisen. It may still be a animate thing, but then so is a carrot. Why is one OK to dine and not the other?

The ability to perceive and substantiate ache and anguish does seem to be a big factor in whether a species is saw a valid part of ones diet. A very interesting discussion is available on Richard Herrings good Leicester Square Theatre Podcast with comedian and vegan Michael Legge, about whether honey is vegan. Legge insists that it isnt because its a essence made by animals, which is a perfectly logical( and coherent) polemic. Nonetheless, you can also examine why some might think its OK. Removing honey from a hive generally does no harm to the bees, apart from maybe annoying them. Bees are another confusing one. They prepare sugar regardless, its not something humans oblige them to do, and they make way too much so us taking some isnt damaging.

Insects and vegetarianism have complex rapports. Many “re saying that” vegetarians should eat insects, for environmental and ethical concludes. Insects are fantastically easy to cause and include abundant nutrients, and bugs too arent cognitively complex enough to process things like abiding and nervousnes. However, thats individual insects. Species like the above-mentioned bees words huge colonies, and many consider these superorganisms the true an expression of insect ability. So is it ethically wrong to harm these? I cant tell you that.

Insects, jellyfish and other species probably seem fair game to numerous due to a simple outage of rapport. Big, furry or fluffy people we are going to be able are relevant to, ugly or different ones make it more difficult, so refer for their wellbeing isnt so common, regrettably.

This sort of dilemma, involving whats ethically acceptable to eat, is likely to get more complex as food production technology advances to meet demands. Already, humans are too widespread for modern methods to be 100% animal friendly( modern collecting procedures inevitably kill or displace many souls while reaping vegetable crops) and our species will need increasing loudness of meat as occasion legislates. Technology will hopefully provide solutions to this, but also muddy the waters further.

Signature

Could technology end up used to produce vegan-friendly burger? Depends on how friendly the vegans are. Photograph: McDonalds/ PA

Stem cell meat is one big hope for the future, allowing meat to be ripened and produced in the lab, rather than the abattoir. But are they vegetarian safe? If private individuals burger is changed from a bunch of stem cells, then no swine has been harmed in its product. But if those stem cells were originally taken from a slaughtered animal, is it still ethically wrong? Yes, embarking upon, but what if its the same stem cadre text being used 20 years later, preventing other animals from being used? Is it still bad then?

Maybe well be brought to an end working out how to recycle food with great economy. Sacrificed that we can now 3D-print human material, its not more far-fetched to predict a occasion when we can easily periodical meat. Suppose a technical plan where you discard wasted or unwanted food in one death, its broken down into its ingredient molecules( flabs, proteins, carbohydrates ), these are fed into a printer link specific ink from dedicated cartridges, and theyre reassembled as fresh, recognisable foods. That would be very helpful , without doubt.

But what if you moved a consignment of half-eaten burgers in one goal and used their mass to raise vegetables? Would they be safe for vegans to snack? It might not look like it, but the original flesh thing is completely broken down and reassembled, exactly as it would be if you put the burgers in a compost pile and used them to originate tomatoes. That would be acceptable, why not this? Its precisely a faster, more technical version of the natural action that prolong us. Possibly a less polluting one? You just know people will object though, because thats what we do.

There arent any obvious a resolution of any of this, its exactly interesting to see that, when you apply detailed scientific analysis, the segment between vegetarianism and non-vegetarianism is a lot more blurry than youd expect. Its the same with hasten.

However, if in 10 years youre sitting down to a box of Jellyfish pieces, dont say I didnt warn you.

Dean Burnett regrets sitting down to write this so close to noon. Hes on Twitter, @garwboy

Read more: http :// www.theguardian.com/ science/ brain-flapping/ 2016/ jan/ 18/ vegetarians-to-eat-jellyfish-food-environment

Rachel Roddys Roman rice and spinach cake recipe | Kitchen Sink Tales

This weeks recipe can be made from scratch or, true to Roman resourcefulness with what remains, could give leftovers to operate. Either method, it celebrates the seasons reward of lively spinach and is perfect with a Sicilian orange and fennel salad

Big dances of spinach always catch my eye on the uncommon occasions I go in one of the smarter of Testaccios food shops. This is ridiculous considering the cabinets of cheese and entire walls of healed flesh that could be taking my attention. However, the shining green, cricket-ball sized globes of blanched spinach that sit on a white tray at the figurehead of the ready-prepared food section are the things I find myself looking at time and again. My train of thought is always the same. They are 14 euros each! Who buys these pellets? Realise my own at home, I have found there must be a kilo of( hardy) spinach in each one. At the moment spinach is 2. 50 a kilo at world markets, so there is serious profit in these balls.

Good spinach should be lively, it should crunch and squeak as you stuff it into the crate writes Jane Grigson. I envision she would have approved of my farming fruit and veg mortal Filippo on Testaccio market. His spinach should still be fought into the container, and then bounces against my leg all the way dwelling. She would also, I visualize, have approved of the eject bagful I bought on the Uxbridge Road yesterday, which is now sitting in a colander in my sisters kitchen in London. I enjoy this parity of ingredients in my two countries. I like hardy wintertime spinach selections, with their crumpled leaves, ribbed stems with pink gratuities, seeming robust, hitherto at the same experience sugared and tender.

Introduced to Italy by the Arabs in the 11 th century, the spinach grow near Rome is excellent. Generally, it is simply dished, wilted, well-drained and garmented with olive oil and a spritz of lemon. Another good Roman way is strascinata dragged in olive oil and garlic, sometimes with raisins and yearn nuts. All that said, butter is what I pray with spinach a lot, thinking of a Jane Grigson recipe in which spinach is wilted, then reheated several times, contributing more butter each time, until it is the richest trash, a spoonful of which knocks the socks off creamed spinach. Butter is also key on eat under spinach and hollandaise, or melted on those pesky-to-poach, but superb spinach and ricotta dumplings that Tuscans announce gnudi .

Todays recipe though, is for none of the above , nor is it the spinach curry I am looking forward to eating while I am in London. It is a spinach and rice patty, which first came about for me because of spinach and rice leftovers. Or as an Italian would say the avanzi di spinaci e riso avanzi mean what remains, but too something advantageous, which is the style Italians view leftovers. Of track Italy isnt alone or special in having resourceful recipes for using leftovers: its a feature in conventional home cooking in all countries. But Italy is where I know, and where recipes for leftovers truly continuing to be principle, helping cooking feel like a continuum, one dish and meal rolling into the next rather than a series of isolated occasions.

Whether reached with advantageous leftovers, or cooked from scratch, this is surprisingly luscious and good meaning; savoury and pleasingly plump. It is all very straightforward rice and spinach motley with its allies: butter, nutmeg, parmesan and eggs, pressed into a tin then broiled. The tin helps create a crusty foot. It is good dished hot, heated or at room temperature. Spinach and orange are good companions, so my Sicilian orange and fennel salad, which I roll out whenever possible, is my select of accompaniment here. Otherwise there is the extremely approachable peperonata. Your suggestions are welcome. If you do prepare the spinach for this, maybe cook more than this is necessary and shape your spinach advantage into a ball.

Spinach and rice cake torta di spinaci e riso

I am not going to assume you all have leftover spinach and rice, so here is the recipe from scratch, which should also help you get a handle on lengths so “when youre doing” have leftovers you can do it by eye.

Rachel

Rachel Roddys spinach and rice patties Photograph: Rachel Roddy for the Guardian

Provides 46
500g fresh spinach
250g Italian short cereal risotto rice( such as arborio or carnaroli)
Salt and black pepper
A small-time onion
20g butter, plus more for the dish
3 eggs, beaten
50g parmesan
Nutmeg
A handful of fine breadcrumbs

1 Pick over the spinach, abandoning discoloured buds and tough stalks, then bathe in a couple of changes of cold water. Stuff the soggy spinach into a large wash with no additional ocean and cook, dealt over a low hot until it droops. Tip-off it into a colander and then leave to depletion thoroughly.

2 Boil the rice in salted irrigate for 10 instants, then drain.

3 Peel and finely dice the onion. In a large fry or saute pan, fry the onion in the butter with a small pinch of salt until soft and golden. Use scissors to roughly chop the spinach and then add to the frying pan along with the rice.

4 Pull the wash from the flame, allow to cool a bit before lending the clobber eggs, parmesan, nutmeg, black pepper and a pinch of salt if necessary.

5 Butter and dust a cake tin or mould with fine breadcrumbs. Tip the potpourrus into the mould and then press flat with the back of a spoonful. Bake at 200 C/ 400 F/ gas mark 6 for 25 hours or until the cake is organize house, a bit crisp and golden. Let to sit for five minutes before turning out, or helping straight-shooting from the tin in wedges. Also very good at room temperature.

Read more: http :// www.theguardian.com/ lifeandstyle/ 2016/ jan/ 26/ italian-spinach-rice-cake-recipe-torta-di-spinaci-e-riso-rachel-roddy

Nigel Slaters oyster sauce chicken with citrus mint salad recipe

On a chilly nighttime nothing heateds you up like blisteringly hot Chinese-style chicken, served with a cooling area of herby salad, says Nigel Slater

There was a bit of a spurt of aniseed, soy and ginger-scented prepare in the kitchen last week, as there often is when I have had one of my irregular expeditions to Chinatown. These are the journeys where I return home with armfuls of bottles and flasks, predominantly red.

I simply necessary, almost prayed, the smell of oyster sauce to warm up a kitchen turned ice-cold by a dodgy thermostat. Leafy light-greens, bok choy and mustard light-greens are regularly steamed and tossed with thick-skulled, glossy oyster sauce at home, but meat and fish rather less so.

I convulsed fatty, free-range chicken thighs with crushed garlic, sugar, chilli and oyster sauce and baked them on a frost darknes when merely something blisteringly, eye-wateringly hot would hit the spot. It wasnt something who are able to sunbathe under the label of legitimacy it was just what I needed at that moment. The chicken developed glistening, lightly crisp and really hot. It sizzled as we snack, becoming our cheeks tingle. We employed the fervor out with a sour citrus salad.

There was a big pudding, more, the sort of roasted butterscotch sponge circumstance, with cream, butter and carbohydrate, that merely ever come off in the extremely depths of winter. Emergency cooking for the cold and hungry.

Oyster sauce chicken with citrus plenty salad

Check the chicken regularly, dealing it with foil if “its by” browning too much.

Serves 3
chicken thighs 6

For the marinade:
garlic 3 large-scale cloves
onion 1, medium sized
oyster sauce 100 ml
illuminated soy sauce 4 tbsp
sugar 3 tbsp
chilli sauce 3 tbsp

For the salad:
fish sauce 2 tsp
caster sugar 1 tbsp
lime juice 2 tbsp
spate leaves 10
coriander leaves a large handful
chilli 1, medium-sized
pink grapefruit 1
cashews 2 handful, cooked and salted

To realize the marinade peel the garlic then subdues the cleaves to a glue exploiting a pestle and mortar and a pinch of salt. Make the paste into a large mixing bowl. Peel the onion, cut it in half and chop it very finely. Compound with the garlic.

Put the oyster and soy sauces, the honey and the chilli sauce into the mixing bowl and stir exhaustively. Push the chicken pieces into the marinade, turn them over and leave in a cool lieu for the purposes of an hour or two.

Set the oven at 180 C/ gas mark 4. Place the chicken pieces into a nonstick cook tin, spoon over half the marinade and target in the preheated oven. Roast for 45 hours, basting once or twice with the remaining marinade, and regularly checking their advance. Comprise the ribbing tin with foil if necessary.

To do the salad, combine the fisheries industry sauce, caster carbohydrate and lime juice in a small bowl. Roughly chop or weeping the plenty buds and add to the bowl, together with the coriander leaves. Finely chop the chilli and add to the dressing.

Slice the ends from the grapefruit, place it flat on the chopping board then slice away the peel and white pith a sharp kitchen spear. Remove the segments of tissue from the surface. Put the grapefruit into the garment and leave for 10 instants before contributing the cashew nuts and serving.

Cranberry pudding with butterscotch sauce

Fruits
Fruits of labour: cranberry pudding with butterscotch sauce. Photo: Jonathan Lovekin for the Observer

Once out of the oven, leave the dessert for a few minutes to settle. And, despite the butterscotch sauce, Id be invited to furnish cream, too.

You will also need a deep baking recipe or pudding container appraising approximately 18 cm x 15 cm.

Serves 4-6
dehydrated apricots 180 g
cranberries 50 g, fresh or frozen
simmering ocean 200 ml
butter 100 g
ignited muscovado carbohydrate 100 g
egg 1
plain flour 150 g
roasting pulverize 1.5 tsp

For the sauce:
illuminated muscovado carbohydrate 100 g
double cream 125 ml
butter 70 g
maple syrup 1 tbsp
cranberries 100 g, fresh or frozen

Cut the apricots into small-minded articles and place them in a heatproof mixing container. Contribute the 50 g of cranberries and swarm the roasting water over. Set aside while you become the pudding.

Butter the dessert container with a small grip of butter. Sieve together the flour and baking pulverize. Apply the rest of the butter into the bowl of a food mixer fitted with a flat beater. Add the carbohydrate and beat for 4-5 minutes till soft, pale and peaches-and-cream, occasionally scraping down the sides of the bowl with a rubber spatula.

Make the sauce by putting the carbohydrate, cream, butter and maple syrup in a saucepan and wreaking to the steam. Give it stew for two minutes, roughly chop the 100 g of cranberries( if using frozen fruit, this is easier in a food processor) then add to the sauce.

Break the egg into a container, vanquish softly, just enough to mix white-hot and yolk, then add, with the beater still turning, to the butter and sugar.

When the egg is fully incorporated, incite in the flour and broiling powder smorgasbord, turning slowly until there is no visible mark of flour left. Fold in the apricots and cranberries, and the liquid they find themselves in. Carry the combination to the buttered container, smooth the surface thinly then roast for 30 hours until pale amber and lightly conglomerate. Remove from the oven, pour over half of the cranberry butterscotch sauce and return to the oven for a further 10 times. Serve hot together with the remaining sauce.

Email Nigel at nigel.slater @observer. co.uk or follow him on Twitter @NigelSlater

Read more: https :// www.theguardian.com/ lifeandstyle/ 2017/ feb/ 26/ nigel-slater-oyster-sauce-chicken-with-citrus-mint-salad

How to cook the perfect pitta bread

This Middle Eastern staple is well worth the minimal great efforts to make at home

These barely leavened eats, known to us by their Israeli name, but common throughout the Arab world, are some of the most ancient in existence. Although flat in appearance, they are designed to puff up during broiling and then settle, creating a hollow interior that makes a handy repository for fillings. Quick to make, and easy to feed, its little wonder theyre popular, in various forms, from southern Europe to north Africa , is not merely for stuffing, but also as utensils for dipping or scooping meat, and bulking out soups and salads.

Sealed in long-life package, pitta can be picked up at most supermarkets for mere pennies so why annoyance to reach your own? Because, unless youre luck enough to be able to find them freshly cooked, shop-bought pitta is a very poor relation, just like pizza cornerstones, or indeed hummus. The real thing is soft and chewy, rather than tough, with a fluffy interior perfect for soaking up sauces theyre well worth the pretty minimal effort.

Yvonne
Yvonne Rupertis pitta eat. Photograph: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

The flour

Most pitta recipes call for white flour, and generally of the high-protein, strong selection, although Yvonne Ruperti on the US-based Serious Eats website employments plain flour, both white and wholemeal, explaining that using 20% wholewheat flour[ becomes] the dough much more flavourful and wacky than one obliged with only all-purpose flour, while also not settlement its structure.

Pitta is a bread that depends on gluten development for its distinctive model; without it, the dough will not be strong enough to puff up in the oven, furnishing a simple flatbread, rather than one with a pocket.( Pitta breads get their characteristic form from a combination of hot and moisture. When the thin round of dough goes into the oven, the hot defines the top and foot while turning the liquid in the dough into steam, which is then captured between these blankets of cooked dough, effecting the dough to expand. Although women will rapidly collapse when eliminated from the heat, the pocket inside remains intact .)

Pitta
Pitta eat by Belinda Harley. Photograph: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

Most of Rupertis bread do rise( and descend ), but I find the dough asks more initial kneading, and that the results shortage the chewiness of some of the others. Belatedly, I realise that the American all-purpose flour she refers to tends to be harder than our own, so the distinction between strong and plain flour over there will be less marked. In any case, British readers are best are strongly advised to splash out on dough flour.

The flavour and somewhat nubbly composition that the wholemeal flour passes the eat is favourite with testers, although as Ruperti memoranda, this doesnt produce gluten as easily as its lily-white counterpart, so its best used in moderation. Strong wholemeal is ideal, but in such small amounts, plain will likewise do if thats what you have to mitt. If you prefer a smoother, paler pitta, replace the wholewheat with more white flour.

The fat

The
The Herbet brethren use rapeseed lubricant. Image: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

It is certainly possible to reach pitta without any fatty at all, although why you would want to is beyond me; is not merely does it add flavour, but it keeps the food fresher for longer. Tom and Henry Herbert employs rapeseed oil in their work The Fabulous Baker Brothers, and Belinda Harleys Roast Lamb in the Olive Groves croaks for butter instead, both of which labour just fine texturally, but the former affords the bread a rich flavor that throws me more in thought of naan, while the latter is boringly neutral. Grassy and quintessentially Mediterranean, olive is like the natural choice.

Sarit Packer and Itamar Srulovichs recipe in the Honey& Co cookbook, which several people recommend to me as the only one I should try, adds the fatty towards the end of the kneading process. Although their pittas are luscious, its obviously harder to incorporate the lubricant at this degree, and I would be interested to know the reason behind it; some study is demonstrated that not contributing it at the beginning supports gluten shaping in the dough. If anyone can confirm this, I would be grateful, but I dont find it makes a significant difference, so Im going to stick with the easier method.

Seasoning

You dont have to look very far to find recipes for flavoured pitta( garlic and thyme, for example, or black onion seed ), but I dont believe these little breads involve any help in that department. That said, its common to add sugar to kickstart the action of the yeast, and although a pinch is insufficient, have the same sum as salt imparts the doughs a more well-rounded flavour: add too much, as Ruperti does, and they lose the plainness that is their leader excellence; add too little, or none at all as the Herberts do, and theyre a bit underwhelming.

A
A enormous draw pitta from Sarit Packer and Itamar Srulovich. Photograph: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

The method

Pitta dough must be sufficiently hydrated to generate steam when it matches the hot of the oven, and strong enough to catch this steam, and thus puff up, so the mixture must be both moderately wet and well-kneaded. Dont be tempted to flour the handiwork face unless the dough is so sticky as to be completely unmanageable; it will come together eventually and, in the meantime, a palette bayonet or dough scraper will build life easier. If you have a food mixer, then by all means use that; excavations currently on the blink.

Packer and Srulovich recommend resting the dough overnight if “youve had” the time, as it helps the flavor develop and represents the pitta fluffier, and theyre right; if homemade pittas are perceptibly more delicious than shop-bought ones, slow-risen ones are even better.

Even if you cant wait that long, do tell the individual breads residue before influencing; merely 10 minutes obligates the relevant procedures much easier. The Herberts recommend reeling it out in one guidance only, but this is another fiddly stair I cant see the theory behind as with the oil, if anyone knows why, please explain.

However you roll them out, make sure they are thin sufficient to puff up in the short time they take to concoct, and evenly so, more, or they will blister in places, rather than blowing up like a bag. Ruperti, who discovered a bia for the pitta to be concluded with a much thinner meridian than fanny after it comes out of the oven, hints flipping the eats over before putting them in the oven, so the pocket of breath that rises during the final proofing stage is at the bottom when the dough registers the oven.

Pan-fried
Pan-fried pitta eat by Rebecca Seal. Photo: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

The cooking

Like most foods, pittas are traditionally baked at temperatures that can be difficult to replicate at home. Packer and Srulovich admonish cranking your oven up to maximum, on the fan setting if possible, and heating a baking tray or stone along with it, to give the eats the most wonderful start possible and encourage the establishment of steam.

Although the oven is certainly the best cooking alternative for pitta, as the hot from both top and foot helps to set the dough speedily, its not the only one; Rebecca Seals notebook The Islands of Greece hands an excellent recipe expending a fry pan. Harley also exploits the method used, which she recommends topping with a thick-skulled tomato sauce and crisp chocolate-brown cubes of pork or lamb, a spoonful of thick-skulled tzatziki[ and] some raw onion and tomato( pitta porn notify ). The interior pockets are less dependable, but its much more rapid if youre in a hurry, or its precisely too hot to switch the oven on.

Ruperti indicates finishing off the doughs in a red-hot wash to give them that luscious charred flavour that can be hard to achieve in a domestic oven Not merely do the pittas gaze a whole lot better that practice, but the char adds a mantle of smoky flavour. Shes right, but it isnt traditional( Packer and Srulovich inform that they are not supposed to colour much) and it will crisp up the outsides of the breads, doing them little pliable and amenable to cram. For me, it depends on what Ill be gobbling them with. Plainer occupies, such as hummus or salad, cry out for a little char, while barbecued meat or vegetables dont need it. The jury is out on my current favourite crowd, nonetheless: Marmite and banana. In my apology, Ive had an horrific pile of pitta to put away this week.

Perfect
Perfect pitta food by Felicity Cloake. Photo: Felicity Cloake for the Guardian

( makes 10 )
400ml warm but not hot water
10g active dried yeast
2 tsp sugar
400g strong white-hot flour
100g wholemeal flour( optional, or use 500 g white)
2 tsp salt
2 tbsp olive oil, plus extra to grease

Put 100 ml warm ocean in a jar and scoot in the yeast and half the carbohydrate. Leave until the surface is described in foam. Meanwhile, mix the flours, remaining carbohydrate and salt in a large mingling container.

Mix the petroleum and yeasty irrigate in the flour with your fingertips, then add just enough of the remaining ocean to give you a shaggy dough it should be soft, but not very sticky( memo if youre exploiting all white-hot flour, it was likely wont involve as much as a wholemeal/ white mix ). Turn out on to a clean operate face and rub for about 10 hours( or about 8 in a food mixer on a low-toned acceleration) until smooth and elastic. Give into an oiled container, turn to coating in oil, then envelop and chill overnight, or leave somewhere warmish until doubled in width( about an hour to an hour and a half ).

Heat the oven to maximum, preferably devotee, with a broiling stone or heavy baking tray in there. Meanwhile, divide the dough into approximately 80 g projectiles, extend with a damp tea towel and allow to rest for 10 instants, then roll out on a floured face to rounds about 0.5 mm thick, forming sure they are evenly dense all over. Cover with a damp tea towel and leave for 20 minutes.

Operating as quickly as possible, placed as many pitta as will comfortably fit on the hot stone or broiling tray while its still in the oven, flip-flop them over as you pick them up, so the side resting on the duty surface is now on top. Cook until they bag, then carefully remove and keep warm in a tea towel while you cook the residual( how long this takes is dependent upon how hot your oven goes ). Make sure to keep the oven door closed as much as possible to conserve hot. Eat the same day, or freeze.

Pitta, pide, khubz which form of this very versatile flatbread is your favourite, and how do you like to eat it? And has anyone had any success baking it with other flours ?

Read more: https :// www.theguardian.com/ lifeandstyle/ wordofmouth/ 2016/ jul/ 13/ how-to-cook-the-perfect-pitta-bread

Nigel Slaters oyster sauce chicken with citrus mint salad recipe

On a chilly nighttime good-for-nothing warms you up like blisteringly red-hot Chinese-style chicken, served with a cooling back of herby salad, says Nigel Slater

There was a bit of a commotion of aniseed, soy and ginger-scented fix in the kitchen last week, as there often is when I have had one of my irregular excursions to Chinatown. These are the excursions where I return home with armfuls of bottles and cups, mostly red.

I merely necessitated, virtually craved, the smell of oyster sauce to warm up a kitchen turned ice-cold by a dodgy thermostat. Leafy parks, bok choy and mustard light-greens are regularly steamed and threshed with thick-witted, glossy oyster sauce at home, but meat and fish rather less so.

I convulsed paunch, free-range chicken thighs with crushed garlic, honey, chilli and oyster sauce and roasted them on a ice nighttime when merely something blisteringly, eye-wateringly hot would hit the spot. It wasnt something who are able to sunbathe under the label of accuracy it was just what I needed at that moment. The chicken rose shiny, softly crispy and very hot. It sizzled as we ate, manufacturing our cheeks tingle. We set the shoot out with a sour citrus salad.

There was a big pudding, extremely, these kinds of baked butterscotch sponge occasion, with cream, butter and sugar, that merely ever comes out in the very depths of wintertime. Disaster cooking for the cold and hungry.

Oyster sauce chicken with citrus pile salad

Check the chicken regularly, dealing it with foil if it is browning too much.

Serves 3
chicken thighs 6

For the marinade:
garlic 3 huge cloves
onion 1, medium sized
oyster sauce 100 ml
illuminated soy sauce 4 tbsp
sugar 3 tbsp
chilli sauce 3 tbsp

For the salad:
fish sauce 2 tsp
caster sugar 1 tbsp
lime juice 2 tbsp
batch leaves 10
coriander leaves a large handful
chilli 1, medium-sized
pink grapefruit 1
cashews 2 few, cooked and salted

To oblige the marinade peel the garlic then suppresses the cleaves to a glue employing a pestle and mortar and a pinch of salt. Employ the paste into a large mixing container. Peel the onion, cut it in half and chop it very finely. Combine with the garlic.

Put the oyster and soy sauces, the sugar and the chilli sauce into the mixing bowl and incite exhaustively. Push the chicken pieces into the marinade, turn them over and leave in a cool place for an hour or two.

Set the oven at 180 C/ gas mark 4. Place the chicken pieces into a nonstick cook tin, spoonful over half the marinade and situate in the preheated oven. Roast for 45 minutes, basting once or twice with the remaining marinade, and regularly checking their advancement. Cross the ribbing tin with foil if necessary.

To clear the salad, combine the fisheries industry sauce, caster carbohydrate and lime juice in a small container. Roughly chop or snap the plenty buds and add to the container, together with the coriander leaves. Finely chop the chilli and add to the dressing.

Slice the ends from the grapefruit, plaza it flat on the chopping board then slice away the peel and white pith a sharp kitchen bayonet. Remove the some part of anatomy from the skin. Make the grapefruit into the cover and leave for 10 hours before contributing the cashew nuts and serving.

Cranberry pudding with butterscotch sauce

Fruits
Fruits of labour: cranberry pudding with butterscotch sauce. Photograph: Jonathan Lovekin for the Observer

Once out of the oven, leave the pudding for a few minutes to settle. And, despite the butterscotch sauce, Id be allured to offer cream, too.

You will also need a deep baking bowl or pudding container appraising approximately 18 cm x 15 cm.

Serves 4-6
dried apricots 180 g
cranberries 50 g, fresh or frozen
boiling ocean 200 ml
butter 100 g
illuminated muscovado sugar 100 g
egg 1
plain flour 150 g
baking pulverization 1.5 tsp

For the sauce:
illuminated muscovado sugar 100 g
doubled cream 125 ml
butter 70 g
maple syrup 1 tbsp
cranberries 100 g, fresh or frozen

Cut the apricots into small-time slice and make them in a heatproof mingling bowl. Include the 50 g of cranberries and move the simmer liquid over. Set aside while you represent the pudding.

Butter the dessert container with a small grip of butter. Sieve together the flour and cooking pulverization. Give the rest of the butter into the container of a food mixer fitted with a flat beater. Contribute the sugar and defeat for 4-5 minutes till soft, pale and peaches-and-cream, rarely scraping down the sides of the bowl with a rubber spatula.

Make the sauce by putting the carbohydrate, cream, butter and maple syrup in a saucepan and delivering to the boil. Give it simmer for 2 minutes, roughly chop the 100 g of cranberries( if utilizing frozen fruit, this is easier in a food processor) then add to the sauce.

Break the egg into a bowl, trounce softly, just enough to mix grey and yolk, then include, with the beater still turning, to the butter and sugar.

When the egg is fully incorporated, budge in the flour and broiling powder smorgasbord, turning gradually until “there dont” visible draw of flour left. Fold in the apricots and cranberries, and the water they are in. Convey the concoction to the buttered bowl, smooth the surface lightly then cook for 30 minutes until pale amber and thinly conglomerate. Remove from the oven, pour over half of the cranberry butterscotch sauce and return to the oven for a further 10 instants. Serve red-hot along with the remaining sauce.

Email Nigel at nigel.slater @observer. co.uk or follow him on Twitter @NigelSlater

Read more: https :// www.theguardian.com/ lifeandstyle/ 2017/ feb/ 26/ nigel-slater-oyster-sauce-chicken-with-citrus-mint-salad

Is it okay for vegetarians to eat jellyfish? Dean Burnett

Dean Burnett: Would you be willing to eat a jellyfish? Even if youre vegetarian, you might want to consider it.

Would you chew a jellyfish? The more likely react would be no; they search disgusting. And theyre probably poisonous. Shall I launder it down with a neat glass of chilled urine? But, unavoidably, some people do eat them. They might even experience them, the maniacs.

But Cnidaria cookery procedures aside, consider this; would it be OK for a vegetarian to feed jellyfish? If not, why not?

A lot of beings are adopting a vegan nutrition this January, and more dominance to them. Their motivations may diversify( for donation, for the health benefits etc .) but its still a big wrench, to remove a enormous swathe of select from your daily diet.

To clarify, Im not vegan myself, or vegetarian. I do like meat, and I simply shortfall the willpower to cut myself off from it entirely. As a result, I have a lot of respect for those who do succeed it. But as anyone whos sounded the phrase Im a vegetarian, except for fish will have realised, there are different levels of commitment to vegetarianism, and beings differ wildly on what they consider acceptable or not.

Part of this is likely to to be derived from the differing reasons for being vegetarian/ vegan in the first place. Some do it for religious reasons, so what the hell are you feed is determined by your pious verse or scripture etc. Restrictive perhaps, but at least you know where you stand. Other parties simply dont like flesh, or are intolerant to it or other animal produces , so simply avoid them altogether. In this case, its your immune organisation that ascertains your diet.

There are also reverberated environmental intellects. While there are concerns over the environmental impacts of favourite vegetarian-friendly substances like palm lubricant, the environmental cost of meat yield is undeniable, and overwhelming.

HoneyMandatory Credit: Photo by Richard Bowler/ REX Shutterstock( 4681850 a) Honey bees leaving and recruiting a beehive Honey bees at beehive near Corwen, North Wales – 18 Apr 2015 Wildlife photographer Richard Bowler captured these fascinating likeness of honey bees in a hive near Corwen, North Wales on Saturday( 18 April ). He says: I photographed these when a acquaintance examined his hive. I ceased up with five bites to the head for my fus, LOL! animalgallery” src= “https :// i.guim.co.uk/ img/ media/ 4173391 c767f5f36e8a8fa8e72299dd522398d0f/ 108 _0_ 4355 _2 613/ lord/ 4355. jpg? w= 300& q= 85& vehicle= format& sharp-worded= 10& s= e33431d87a7441c59ca0949390cace58” />

Vegetarianism gets a bit mystifying once you get insects implied. Photo: Richard Bowler/ REX Shutterstock

But many people adopt vegetarianism/ veganism for moral and ethical concludes, which is fair enough. Objecting to swine being killed or digesting for our nutrient is a perfectly logical stance. But when you get down to the actual technical minutium of what these occasions symbolize, then it starts to get mystifying.

This creates us back to the jellyfish question; would it be safe for a vegetarian to eat one? If youre vegetarian for environmental rationales, it may even be better to devour jellyfish, committed how abundant they are without any need for harmful human gardening. But what about ethical anxieties? While technically classified as animals, they are devoid of any mentality or nervous system, and most cant even verify where they move. Everything we are aware of neuroscience suggests such a character would be totally incapable of perceiving anything as complex as bear or pain, and it certainly wouldnt be able to experience any psychological reaction to such an experience. So by dining one , no bear can be said to have appeared. It may still be a animate thing, but then so is a carrot. Why is one OK to gobble and not the other?

The ability to perceive and illustrate discomfort and pain does seem to be a big factor in whether a species is regarded a valid part of ones diet. A very interesting argument is available on Richard Herrings good Leicester Square Theatre Podcast with comedian and vegan Michael Legge, about whether honey is vegan. Legge insists that it isnt because its a substance made by animals, which is a perfectly logical( and coherent) proof. Nonetheless, you can also check why some might think its OK. Removing honey from a hive generally does no harm to the bees, apart from maybe annoying them. Bees are another flustering one. They see sugar anyway, its not something humen force them to do, and they make way too much so us taking some isnt destructive.

Insects and vegetarianism have complex rapports. Numerous argue that vegetarians should eat insects, for environmental and ethical grounds. Insects are fantastically easy to render and enclose plentiful nutrients, and insects too arent cognitively complex sufficient to process events like suffering and uneasines. However, thats individual insects. Species like the above-mentioned bees words huge colonies, and numerous consider these superorganisms the true manifestations of insect intellect. So is it ethically wrong to harm these? I cant tell you that.

Insects, jellyfish and other species possibly seem fair game to many due to a simple failing of rapport. Big, furry or fluffy characters we are going to be able relate to, ugly or different ones make it harder, so feeling for their wellbeing isnt commonly shared, regrettably.

This sort of dilemma, viewing whats ethically acceptable to eat, is likely to get most complex as food production technology improvements to meet demands. Already, humans are too widespread for modern methods to be 100% animal friendly( modern gleaning procedures inevitably kill or displace many men while accumulating vegetable harvests) and our species will need increasing publications of meat as experience proceeds. Technology will hopefully provide solutions to this, but too muddy the waters further.

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Could engineering end up producing a vegan-friendly burger? Depends on how friendly the vegans are. Photograph: McDonalds/ PA

Stem cell meat is one big hope for the future, allowing meat to be thriven and produced in the lab, rather than the abattoir. But are they vegetarian safe? If private individuals burger is flourished from a knot of stem cells, then no swine has been harmed in its creation. But if those stem cells were originally taken from a slaughtered swine, is it still ethically wrong? Yes, to begin with, but what if its the same stem cadre front being used 20 years later, impeding other animals from being used? Is it was better bad then?

Maybe well be brought to an end working out how to recycle food with great economy. Sacrificed that we can now 3D-print human tissue, its not more far-fetched to predict a period when we can easily publish nutrient. See a technical organization where you hurl wasted or unwanted food in one culminate, its broken down into its ingredient molecules( fats, proteins, carbohydrates ), these are fed into a printer relate specific ink from dedicated cartridges, and theyre reassembled as fresh, recognisable foods. That would be very helpful , no doubt.

But what if you swarmed a onu of half-eaten burgers in one culminate and used their mass to grow veggies? Would they be safe for vegans to ingest? It might not look like it, but the original meat content is completely broken down and reassembled, exactly as it “wouldve been” if you give the burgers in a compost pile and used them to change tomatoes. That considered acceptable, why not this? Its merely a faster, more technological version of the natural processes that keep us. Possibly a less polluting one? You just know parties will object though, because thats what we do.

There arent any obvious solutions to any of this, its merely interesting to note that, when you apply detailed scientific analysis, the subdivide between vegetarianism and non-vegetarianism is far more blurry than youd expect. Its the same with hasten.

However, if within ten years youre sitting down to a carton of Jellyfish pieces, dont say I didnt warn you.

Dean Burnett regrets sitting down to write this so close to lunchtime. Hes on Twitter, @garwboy

Read more: http :// www.theguardian.com/ science/ brain-flapping/ 2016/ jan/ 18/ vegetarians-to-eat-jellyfish-food-environment